A collar strategy is an option strategy that can particularly benefit investors. In this blog we have a lot more options education for traders and less for long-term investors so here is a strategy both can consider. A collar is simply holding shares of stock and buying a put and selling a call. Usually both the call and the put are out-of-the money (OTM) when establishing this option combination. A basic single collar represents one long put and one short call along with 100 shares of the underlying stock. A collar strategy is frequently implemented after stock (investment) has increased in price. The main objective of a collar is to protect profits that have accrued from the shares of stock rather than increasing returns. Is that an option strategy you might consider? Let’s take a look.
Why a Collar?
Since the market has been on a rather a bullish run and there are a plethora of stocks that have increased in value and it might be a good time to talk about some strategies that can help protect those gains. One option strategy is to buy a put. The investor has some protection for the unrealized profits in case the stock declines. The other part of the combination is selling the OTM call. By doing this, the investor is prepared to sell his or her shares of stock if the call is exercised because the stock has moved above the call’s strike price.
The advantage of a collar strategy over just buying a protective put is being able to pay for some or the entire put by selling the call. In essence, an investor buys downside stock protection for free or almost free of charge. Until the investor exercises the put, sells the stock or has the call assigned, he or she will retain the stock.
Volatility and Time Decay
Even though implied volatility (IV) has been really low over the last several months in the market, volatility and also time decay are not usually big issues when it comes to a collar strategy. The simple explanation is because the investor is long one option and short another so the effects of volatility and time decay will generally offset each other.
An investor could have bought 100 shares of Delta Air Lines (DAL) in October of last year for about $32 a share. At the time of this writing the stock has climbed to about $46 a share and the investor is worried about the current market conditions being extended to the upside and protecting his unrealized gains. The investor can utilize a collar strategy.
The investor can buy a April 43 put for 0.90. If the stock falls, the investor will have the right to sell the shares for $43. At the same time the investor can sell a April 48 call for 1.00. This will make the trade a net credit of 0.10 (1 – .90). If the stock continues to rise, it can do so for another $2 until the stock will most likely be called away from him.
Three Possible Outcomes
The stock finishes over $48 at April expiration. If this scenario happens, another $2 per share is realized on the stock and $10 on the net credit of the combination is the investors to keep.
The stock finishes between $43 and $48 at April expiration. In this case, both options expire worthless. The stock is retained and the $10 net credit is the investors to keep.
The stock finishes below $43 at April expiration. The investor can sell the put option if he wishes to retain the stock or exercise the right to sell the stock at $43. Either way the $10 net credit is the investors to keep.
The nice thing about a collar strategy is that an investor knows the potential losses and gains right from the start. If the stock climbs higher, the profits may be curbed due to the short call but if the stock takes a dive, the investor has protection due to the long put and protection might not be such a bad idea if the market corrects itself. Even an investor can benefit from some options education!
Senior Options Instructor